The Quaid’s tragic last hours

By Zuhair Siddiqui

geust-contTHE obscurity that still partly shrouds the childhood and earlier years of the creator of Pakistan is understandable. Some of the story will ever remain untold. The child who was destined to carve out a new State was born to an ordinary family of Khoja tradesmen practically unknown outside business circles in Karachi and Bombay.

The young Mohammad All was no prodigy and his name does not feature on the roll of honour of any school. The records of the schools that he attended tell us little beyond his registered date of birth and the dates of his joining and leaving. He left his last school, and the country, before matriculation. Continue reading “The Quaid’s tragic last hours”

Pakistan and CENTO: need for reappraisal

By Zubeida Mustafa

TO withdraw or not to  withdraw from CENTO is not a new question for Pakistan. The membership of the pact has been debated ever since this country decided to link its defence with the Western sponsored military alliance, originally called the Baghdad Pact.

However, recently this question has acquired a new meaning in view of the developments which have been taking place in the international politics of Central and South Asia. In this context some rethinking on Pakistan’s membership of CENTO should indeed prove to be quite timely, and it is a worthwhile idea to encourage a free and frank public debate on the issue. Besides being educative, this could promote a broad consensus on foreign policy. Continue reading “Pakistan and CENTO: need for reappraisal”

Rape of the law

By Zuhair Siddiqui

geust-contThe sweep of events during the past half year has been dramatic and fast, and the Bhutto and Indira regimes already seem to belong to a distant past; but as their leaders desperately try to pull themselves out of the meshes of the law, one is struck by the contrast between their past contempt for “Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence” and their present determination to exploit its mechanisms to the full.

“Certainly no man can over estimate the importance, of the mechanisms of justice. There have been greater avenues to freedom than that beaten out by the writ of habeas corpus…

“What seem, on the surface, insignificantly procedural changes — as when a man becomes entitled to a copy of the indictment upon which he is charged, or is able, in the witness-box, to testify upon his own behalf, or may appeal from the verdict of a jury and the sentence of a judge to a body of legal experts beyond them — these, for all their forbiddingly technical character, are more nearly related to freedom than the splendid sentences in which Rousseau depicts the conditions of their attainment. Continue reading “Rape of the law”

Why Bhutto fell

By Zuhair Siddiqui

geust-contTHE despotic personality is immune from many “weaknesses” to which ordinary mortals are susceptible. One of these is a willingness to admit failure. The King can do no wrong, nor can he fail.

Even in the spring of 1945, as the Reich that he had built crumbled, most of Germany lay in ruins and Russian tanks rolled into Berlin, Hitler remained unshaken in his confidence that all that he had done was right. “From first to last,” says his biographer, Alan Bullock, his will and political testament shows “not a word of regret, nor a suggestion of remorse. The fault is that of others, above all that of the Jews, for even now the old hatred is unappeased. Word for word. Hitler’s final address to the German nation could be taken from almost any of his early speeches of the 1920’s or from the pages of Mein Kampf. Twenty odd years had changed and taught him nothing.” Continue reading “Why Bhutto fell”

Quaid for young readers: half-truths

Reviewed by Zuhair Siddiqui

Father of our Nation: Early Life Story, by Hamid Ahmad Khan. Pp. 35. Rs. 5.00. Published by the National Book Foundation for the National Committee for the Quaid-i-Azam’s Centenary Celebrations.

geust-contAPART from being a distinguished scholar and teacher, the late Prof. Hamid Ahmad Khan wielded a facile pen in English as well as Urdu. He was, however, never known for any interest in politics, and when he died a few years ago nobody knew that he had left among his literary remains an unpublished manuscript on the early life of the founder of Pakistan. This is presumably the first part of a full biography for the benefit of the younger generation which he had planned but did not live to complete. Continue reading “Quaid for young readers: half-truths”

Reading habits in children

By Zubeida Mustafa

THE ten-year-old drones on as he pausesat the end of each paragraph glancingfurtively at his teacherfor the eagerly awaited signal to stop.

The four-i ear-old enthusiastically turns the pages of his picture book as be concentrates on whatthe illustrations are trying to convey.

Although the older child is doingwhat would technically be called the act 0f reading recognizing the printed letter and decodingit into pronounceable words it is the four-year-old who isactually doing more readingfor reading is a complete actof communication which correspondsto the act of writing in thesense that it involves responseand feedback from the reader.

Despite the advantages of reinterpretationand retrospectionwhich reading offers, many people are not inclined to take upa book purely for recreation. They would much prefer the TV screen. Surprising thoughit might appear this is the case,to a greater extent, in the developed countries where literacyis universal and where onewould expect to take the readinghabit for granted. Thus it is estimated that in France 53 percent, in Netherlands 40 per centand in Hungary 39 per cent ofthe adults do not read books.But in Bangladesh where literacyis low barelya tenth of the literate people are non-readers, since those whoare literate are highly motivated. Continue reading “Reading habits in children”

Memories of a great scholar

By Zuhair Siddiqi, Viewpoint, September, 1977

geust-contDr. Wahid Mirza died in Lahore on September 5.

MOHAMMAD WAHID MIRZA was already in his late seventies, and slowly wearing away, when the country observed the 700th death anniversary of his beau ideal, Amir Khusrau, earlier this year. For nearly forty years, Dr. Mirza had been a distinguished figure in the world of Oriental learning. But outside the limited circle of Orientalists, he was not much known — thanks largely to his own retiring disposition and his inherent dislike of self-projection. During the last year of his life, however, his valuable work on Amir Khusrau brought him much wider recognition among the lay intelligentsia. In their search for authentic material on the fascinating character and amazing achievements of that great savant, writers and journalists inevitably had to turn to Dr.Wahid Mirza’s classic contribution, and many of them acknowledged him as one of the greatest living authorities on the subject. The National Book Foundation published a new edition of his Life and Works of Amir Khusrau, which has held the field as a practically indispensable work of reference ever since it was first published in 1935. And at the request of the Foundation,he produced within a few days, in spite of his old age and failing health, an English translation of Khusrau’s Khazain-ul-Futuh — a short history of the reign of Alauddin Khilji. As wider recognition, and fresh bouquets of tribute came to Dr. Mirza during the last year of his life one was reminded of the touching lines of Robert Blair : Continue reading “Memories of a great scholar”

The press: Thirty tortured years

 By Zuhair Siddiqui

geust-contTHE history of the first generation of Pakistan is strewn with mutilations of the rights and liberties that give meaning to political independence. Political activity and organisation, trade unionism, public speech, the people’s franchise, the gathering and publication of news, and press comment — all have been subjected during these thirty years to various kinds and degrees of restriction and control. The constraints have at times amounted to total suppression.

The denial of freedom to the Press, in a way, lies at the heart of the wider, perennial problem of authoritarianism and regimentation. The Press is the watchdog of the people’s freedom and, as an Englishman observed two centuries ago, its liberty is the “palladium of the civil, political and religious rights” of the individual.

Nearly a hundred and fifty years later, the truth of this pithy observation was elucidated by the great socialist political thinker, Harold Laski. He regarded an assertive critical spirit among the citizens as vital to the preservation of their rights, and the freedom of the Press as vital to the whole concept of responsible democratic government: Continue reading “The press: Thirty tortured years”

Women’s view of politics: how free—or crucial—is their vote?

By Zubeida Mustafa

DURING the last few years women in Pakistanhave emerged asone of the major foci of party campaigns. Althoughthey comprisenearly half the populationand have been enfranchised since the inceptionof Pakistan itself,women have neverfound themselves asmuch the target of election campaigns asthey find themselves today.

Women’s Wings ofpolitical parties havebeen organised and “womenonly” public meetings are being held.This sudden upsurge of interestIn mobilising support of the female population can be attributed to the growth of politicalconsciousness among the women living in the urban areas. The major events which appear tohave contributed to the rise ofsocial and political awareness, although not necessarily interest and involvement  among the womenare the International Women’s

Year in 1975 and a numberof moves by the Government ofPakistan which were directed towards improving the social andeconomic status of women as aclass. The publicity the IWY andthe other measures received, morethan their actual achievements,could be considered responsiblefor infusing an awareness in women of their social and politicalenvironment.In order to assess the level ofpolitical consciousness in women from all walks of life. DAWNconducted a survey amongst across-section of women in Karachi.

The survey was held in earlyFebruary when electioneering hadstarted in real earnest but had not reached the pitch it did afortnight later. Some of the questionsmight be differently answered by some of the women if theywere to be interviewed again today,but this would not radically change our findings.

To cover women from all walksof life, a number of areas wereselected. The localities visited by our investigators were as variedas the Defence Housing Society,Clifton, KDA Scheme No. 1, PECHS, Nazimabad, Liaquatabad,Golimar, FB Area, Korangi,Landhi, Gizri, Tin Hatti and Azam

Basti.The women interviewed weredivided into four income groups,namely. A—the upper class with an income of over Rs3,000; B—the middle class with an income of Rs1,201-3,000; C—the lower middle class with an incomeof Rs501-1,200, and D—thepoorer classes earning less than Rs500.

Of those interviewed 28 per centwere working women who includedthe highly professional ones such as doctors and the low-paidones such as the cleaning women. But the idea of taking note ofthem was to determine generally

if their daily contact with peopleoutside their homes and their socialtraining or education, if any, affect their political attitudes andbehaviour.

Another factor which must benoted is that of literacy. Although69 per cent of those interviewedclaimed to be literate, the disparityamong the various classeswas most marked. Only 16 percent of group D could read ofwhich over half had not evencompleted their schooling. But ingroup A 95 per cent were literateand a third of these had a post graduate degree. In the iriddleincome group literacy rangedfrom 88 per cent for group B to75 per cent for group C.This no doubt affected the levelof awareness among the women.

Within each income group, theliterates were definitely better informedthan their illiteratecounterparts.

The survey was kept strictlynon-partisan and it was madeclear that, we were not interested in party affiliations. Hence noquestion was designed to elicitviews on political orientations.The objective was to test the level of awareness and interest displayedby women in politics. Insteadof asking a woman directly if sheis interested in politics we preferredto ask questions which indirectlybrought out the degree ofher political involvement. For instancethe women were asked ifthey had ever attended a publicmeeting, if they were members of a political party and if in theiropinion it was proper for women to take active pan in politics.The questions most relevant towomen’s interest in the electionpertained to the vote. More thanhalf of them knew for certain that they have been registered asvoters (53 per cent). But 26 percent replied that they do not know if they are registered. It was themiddle class (groups B and C)which showed greatest sense of civic responsibility since 70 percent of women from these groupssaid they are registered as voters.

Only 31 per cent of group D and42 per cent of group A are registeredas voters.

This indifference displayed bythe upper and the lowest classcan of course be attributed to differentreasons. While the upperclass does not feel any social oreconomic compulsion to get involved in politics, the lowest income group is handicapped by its lackof education and social backwardness.But what indicated a relativerise in the desire for participationin the political process on thepart of women was that 53 percent of them plan to vote this time.

Only 47 per cent of thosesurveyed had cast their vote inthe last election in 1970.The. same pattern as indicatedearlier emerged in various groupsin respect of the women’s intention to exercise their franchise.

While 60 per cent of the womenfrom the middle class said theywould cast their vote, only 42 per cent of group D and 51 per centof group A said they would vote.

The discrepancy in groups Aand D in the numbers of thoseregistered and those who plan tovote stems from two factors.First, a large number of women(38 per cent in group A and 21per cent in group D) said theydid not know whether they hadbeen registered as voters. Theyreplied in the affirmative to thequestion on the assumption that they might have been registered.Secondly, in group D, womenshowed a gross ignorance of thepolitical process when a numberof them said they had not beenregistered as voters, yet theywould cast their vote! In thisrespect the working women displayedgreater interest than the house wives in the elections since55 per cent of them said they planned to vote.

We were rather surprised whenonly 51 per cent of the womensurveyed could name the candidates in their constituency. Butthis figure might be higher todayas the electioneering gains momentum.

Whereas only 24 per centin group D and 51 per cent ingroup A knew the names of theircandidates, groups B and C were better informed with 65 per cent aware of the candidates. Again, the relative lack of knowledge in in the top and lowest income groups  can be attributed to lack of interest and education, respectively.

As political consciousness among women is emerging on the scene now it is interesting as well as important to determine whether women have their own independent opinions or they simply reflect the political attitudes of the male members of their family. About 29 per cent of the women 1surveyed answered that their choice of the candidate would be influenced by their husbands/ fathers. But again the disparity among the classes was most marked. As anticipated, 58 per cent of the lowest income group womenreplied that their husbands or other male members of the family would determine their choice of acandidate”.

From the middle classes 20 per cent replied in the affirmative to this question and only 16 per cent from the highest incomegroup.

It must be borne in mind thatdue to their lack of education andtradition-bound way of life the women in group D have no othersource of information about whatis going on outside their homes except their menfolk. Hence theycannot be expected to formulatetheir opinions independently especially in a male dominated society. This also confirmed thetrend that as their economic condition improves women tend to become more and more independent  in their thinking. Thus only  six per  cent of the  women said they would vote as their husbands voted.

Among the factors which lnfluence women in formulating politicalopinion, newspapers were first on the list (26 per cent). Nextcame the family (21 per cent) andthen ihe radio and television (17 per cent). But as expected thedisparity within each group was pronounced and can be attributed to the socio-cultural factors mentioned earlier. While the familyinfluenced the views of 44 per centof the women from group D, newspapers received the first priorityin all the other classes. Books andjournals figured very low on the list in all the groups. About 33per cent of the working womensaid they were influenced by theircolleagues.

A striking feature of politicallife in most Afro-Asian countries is that the personality of the candidates rather than their partvmanifestos and programmes determinethe decision of the voters. This trend was confirmed by oursurvey. While 39 per cent of thewomen surveyed opted for a candidate’spersonality rather thanhis party, 26 per cent were undecided.Thirtyfive per cent werepositively in favour of party programmes.

While many women showedmore interest in the candidate’spersonality, they generally did not attach much importance to thesex factor. Only 23 per cent repliedthat they would vote for afemale candidate irrespective ofher ability because being a womanshe would understand theirproblems and represent them better.

But there was a marked differencebetw^een group D and theothers. In this group 46 per centcame out in favour of a womancandidate (38 per cent were undecided)but in the other groupsas many as 83 per cent (group B),66 per cent (group C) and 73 percent (group A) were emphaticthat they would not support afemale candidate only because shewas a woman. Working womenwere also not inclined to vote fora woman only on the baste of hersex.

Seventynine per cent of themclearly said so. This should dispelthe impression that has gainedcurrency that women want to berepresented by women alone whateverbe then calibre. The lowestincome group’s answer in favour of women representatives can beattributed to their social inhibitionswhich preclude free communication between the sexes.Another finding which shouldinterest women libbers is that when they were asked if they would vote for a candidate whostands for social change and theemancipation of women, 51 per cent of the women surveyed gavepriority to other considerations.

Actually it was the upper classwhich displayed greatest interestin the emancipation of women (60 per cent). Although 39 percent of women in group D saidthey would support a candidate who stood for social chanee. 36per cent opted for other considerationsand 25 per cent were undecided.

In the middle incomegroups the disinterestedness insocial change was quite marked.

In group B. 57 per cent went infor other considerations and ingroup C, 75 per cent were for other factors. This confirms thatas yet the attitudes of womenthemselves towards a change in their own social and economicstatus has not been reorientedsubstantially. The middle classhardly seems to be upset by thepresent social order and wouldopt for the status quo.

In fact for the women who expressedthemselves in favour ofother considerations, the major issues were promotion of nationalinterest (47per cent) and improvementof living conditions through provision of civic amenitiesand economic reforms (30 per cent). But the priorities variedaccording to the income group.Thus the lower class spoke moreabout regularisation of their colonies,improvement in water supply and so on. The middle class expresseditself in favour of a candidatewho stood for national interest.

Local problems naturallydid not figure in the replies ofwomen from group A. since they have no such problems

One of the most revealing questionswas if they had attended apublic meeting and if not, why not? It was found that 76 per cent of the women surveyed had not attended a public meeting. The highest number of those who had attended was from groups C and D, 31 per cent of whom had been to a public meeting. Workingwomen showed even lesser interestin that respect and only 24per cent said that they had attendeda public meeting. Amongst

the reasons cited for not attendingthe major ones were lack oftime (36 per cent), lack of interest (17 per cent), disapproval ofmale members of female participation in political process (13 percent) and fear of violence (9 per cent). But within each group thepriorities changed. In group D disapprovalof menfolk figured on top followed by lack of time. Aswe moved up the scale, lack oftime was the major reason cited by the middle class. For group A.lack of interest took first priorityfollowed by lack of time.

The greatest paradox emergedin the questions whether womenshould take active part in politics and whether they were membersof a political party. Nearly 74 percent said ‘yes’ to the first question (although only 52 per centfrom group D agreed) but whentt came to active involvement the result was quite disappointing.While many womenshowed more interesti inthe candidate’s personality, they generally did notattach much importanceto the sex factor.Only 7 per cent were members of a political party. No one from theupper class was a party member.Only 6 per cent of the middleclass had joined a party and 15per cent of the lowest class were ,party members. Three per cent ofworking women were affiliated with a party.

Two trends broadly emergedfrom the survey. In the first placea close relationship exists between literacv and political awareness.Secondly, there is no similar correlationbetween political awareness and participation in politicallife. Due to the absence of homogeneityin their cultural patternsand the prevalence of illiteracyin the lowest group, the various classes showed a pronounced disparityin their replies. Moreoverthe percentage of women who repliedthat they were “undecided”or “did not know” was generally highest in group D. This can beattributed, as mentioned earlier,to their lack of education and their cultural norms which preventcontact with external socialinfluences. But while women from the middle classes and to alesser extent those from the upperclasses are better informed and aware of the political processesand issues being debated, theydo not manifest a desire to be actively involved in politics. Thus they were ofthe view that womenshould participate in politics but they themselves display a markedtendency to remain uninvolved bynot attending public meetings or enrolling as party members. Thereason most commonly cited isthat they have no time. The upper class which has relativelymore time is simply not interested.

However it is significant thatthe lowest class which was leastinformed showed relatively more involvement. A number of themhad attended public meetings.This could be because such rallies provide them with a recreationaldiversion from the monotony oftheir daily chores and party workers can persuade them moreeasily to go to a public meetingeven though their ignorance and apathy towards public issues andnational problems are appalling.But this gives rise to hope thatthe participation of the lowestclass in such meetings mightinitiate a process of political educationfor them which will draw them into the political mainstreampaving the way for ahealthy growth of democratic processes.

Obaidullah Sindhi: A fascinating figure

Reviewed by Zuhair Siddiqi

MAULANA OBAIDULLAH SINDHI, HALAAT-1-ZINDGI, Taaleemat, aur siyasi afkaar by Mohammad Sarwar. Fifth edition, Published by Sind Saagar Academy, Lahore. pp. 440; price Rs. 16.00.

geust-contMaulana Obaidullah Sindhi is one of the many fascinating, but now nearly forgotten, figures in the recent cultural and political history of Muslim India. For nearly a third of his life he remained in exile, and when he returned home early in 1939, the political atmosphere was not at all congenial for a man of ideas. No Muslim intellectual who did not carry a Muslim League flag could then expect a patient hearing in his own community. On the other hand, the Maulana’s aversion to Gandhian obscurantism ruled out an active association with the Congress in spite of his general sympathy with its objectives. He continued to preach his religious and political ideas independently, and died in 1944.

Although he was a Punjabi by birth and lived in Sind for many long years, we have read scarcely anything about him in Pakistan except in the writings of his ardent devotee,

Mr. Mohammad Sarwar. The work under review, which appeared in 1943, was first published in Pakistan in 1967. Together with a complement volume entitled Ifadat-o-Malfoozat, it forms a comprehensive study of the life, thought and works of that remarkable man.

Born posthumously in a Sikh family in a Sialkot village, Obaidullah fell under the spell of Islam while still a boy, abandoned his home and family, and embraced the faith of his choice at the hands of a Muslim divine in Sind. At the age of twenty-five, he went for higher religious education to the famous school at Deoband, where he was taught by Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan and mastered the traditional Islamic disciplines. After graduation, he returned to Sind, taught for several years, and also established a madrassah where he used to bear the students’ expenses and maintain the teachers. After a few years he went back to Deoband, at the instance of Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan, and undertook to organise the old students of the Dar-ul-Uloom. But his mind was too independent to accept the rigid conformism of the Deoband school and he fell out with a section of its ulema, who denounced him as a heretic. He later moved to Delhi and devoted himself to the propagation of his own views on the reconstruction of Muslim society. He took his stand firmly on the Quran and attacked the conventional beliefs and doctrines that he found repugnant to the spirit and essence of the Book.

Advocate of modernism

During the Great War, he was caught in the current of the prevailing pro-Turkish sentiment in Muslim India, and at the instance of Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan, went to Kabul to persuade the Afghan ruler to attack the British. He failed, but stayed on in Kabul during the rest of the war years. After the end of the war he became the president of the first branch of the Indian National Congress in Kabul. In 1922, he left Afghanistan for the Soviet Union, where he lived for nearly a year. In the following year he moved to Turkey to witness her rebirth and transformation under Mustafa Kemal. A few years later he went to the Hejaz, where he devoted himself to study and teaching for over a decade.

It was during this long stay in Arabia that Obaidullah embarked upon an exhaustive study of the works of the eminent Muslim thinker and divine of the eighteenth century, Shah Waliullah. He became an ardent follower, and the thoughts and teachings of the Shah dominated his ideas and activities during the rest of his life.

The Maulana did not know any Western language, but he had an open mind and a keen observation, and during his long stay abroad he responded favourably to the currents of radical and revolutionary ideas then sweeping the world around him. He became a strong advocate of socio-economic reform and modernisation in the Muslim world, and pleaded for an ungrudging acceptance of nationalism as a determining factor in its future political organisation.

Federal nationalism

The author has explained Obaidullah Sindhi’s religious and political ideas clearly and concisely, and devoted a whole chapter to the political movement associated with Shah Waliullah. The work is, however, dominated by a reverential spirit which seems to rule out a critical approach. Maulana Obaidullah was as much a hero to Mr. Sarwar as Shah Waliullah was to the Maulana, and neither of them has subjected his hero’s ideas to a really critical examination. The doctrine of wahdat-ul-wujud, as interpreted by the Shah in the eighteenth century, is no doubt noble and sublime; but its utility as a basis for national integration in India was doubtful even at that time, and it had clearly become irrelevant when Maulana Obaidullah sought to preach it two hundred years later.

In spite of his nationalist leanings, Maulana Obaidullah, did not stand for a total national integration in India and envisaged for the Muslims a measure of autonomy far beyond that permissible in a normal federation. This is explained, at least partly, by his aversion to the infiltration of Hindu spiritualism , into Congress politics; in any event, it is significant that the “political manifesto” issued by him as far back as 1924, from Istanbul, envisaged a three-tier system very similar to that proposed under the Cabinet Mission scheme in 1946. Even otherwise, Mr. Sarwar has made it clear that the Maulana’s vision of a free India was not that of an integrated national State; he rather believed in a multinational State based on autonomous linguistic units. It is not clear, however, how he proposed to reconcile the linguistic principle with the claims of Muslim separatism.

Perhaps, the most remarkable aspect of the Maulana’s thought and politics is his ungrudging acceptance of the economic and social consequences of the industrial revolution and his passion for an equitable economic order free from the exploitation of man by man. He urged the Muslims to realize that the industrial revolution and the sweeping social and economic changes that had overtaken the West had not only transformed the methods of production but shaken the very basis of the social and juristic systems under the old order. He wanted the world of Islam to open its eyes and respond to the winds of change rather than continue to coddle itself in revivalist dreams incapable of being realized.

Source: Viewpoint  February 25, 1977