By Zubeida Mustafa
ONE reason why our education system is going to the dogs is that our
policymakers earnestly believe that to be meaningful, education must be
serious and dull. They think that a student enjoying herself in class is
not learning anything. That would explain why our classrooms are
generally not intellectually lively and why our students learn so
Having said this, I will ask the question I had asked in my earlier
column, ‘Books are fun’: can a child enjoy any activity in a language
she cannot understand? The answer is so obvious that it amounts to
insulting the readers’ intelligence and I am sorry for raising this
question again. Yet our schools insist on teaching small children in a
language they do not understand and enjoy. In Karachi, with the
exception of public-sector schools and some NGO-run educational
institutions such as TCF, the medium of instruction is either English or
a hybrid of Urdu-English because the teachers know no better. The worst
part is that all the reading and writing is done in English because the
textbooks used are in English.
Continue reading Love of English
By Zubeida Mustafa
Nadia (aged 14) is a typical victim of the tyranny of the English-language Hydra in Pakistan. Coming from an underprivileged socio-economic background, this girl is required to master an alien language if she wants to realise her dreams. Thanks to the easy accessibility of electronic media and a concerted movement for reform by concerned members of civil society, public interest in education has been stirred, and expectations are high. There are millions of teenagers like Nadia who want to acquire a good education to uplift their socio-economic status. But many are headed for disappointment. The facilities needed to educate such large numbers have not been created in Pakistan by the state, notwithstanding the growing demand. Worse still, the curricula and textbooks have not been designed to meet the specific needs of these children. Hence, aspirations and motivation will not prove to be enough to help Nadia and others like her to achieve upward mobility.
Although there are many hurdles in Nadia’s way, language − especially English −is a major one. Even though the government institutions may not be insisting on English as the language of education, their poor performance disqualifies them as trendsetters. Given the ambiguity in the official education policy, the English-language Hydra has become the driving force. This policy was announced in 2009 by the education ministry in Islamabad, as it was its prerogative to lay down the guidelines for the entire country. The policy defined in detail its vision and strategy, but it was vague about the language to be used as the medium of instruction. It was left to the provinces to decide whether they wanted to use the national or regional language in the public-sector primary schools in their jurisdiction. But it was specified that English would be used to teach science and maths in Years 4 and 5 in these institutions. Private schools were given a free rein. They generally opted for English. In 2010, constitutional amendments devolved powers to the provinces. To the detriment of all, the provincial governments chose to be equally vague and adopted an ad hoc approach to language in education. There has been no clarity in the governments’ policies ever since, on account of the policymakers’ ignorance of education and language-learning matters and their misguided belief that English promotes progress. Their failure to adopt a firm approach on the medium issue has allowed market forces, societal pressures, élite private-school owners (some with political clout) and the leverage of foreign aid givers to gain the upper hand.
Continue reading The Destruction of Nadia’s Dream: The English Language Tyrant in Pakistan’s Education System