Reading habits in children

By Zubeida Mustafa

THE ten-year-old drones on as he pausesat the end of each paragraph glancingfurtively at his teacherfor the eagerly awaited signal to stop.

The four-i ear-old enthusiastically turns the pages of his picture book as be concentrates on whatthe illustrations are trying to convey.

Although the older child is doingwhat would technically be called the act 0f reading recognizing the printed letter and decodingit into pronounceable words it is the four-year-old who isactually doing more readingfor reading is a complete actof communication which correspondsto the act of writing in thesense that it involves responseand feedback from the reader.

Despite the advantages of reinterpretationand retrospectionwhich reading offers, many people are not inclined to take upa book purely for recreation. They would much prefer the TV screen. Surprising thoughit might appear this is the case,to a greater extent, in the developed countries where literacyis universal and where onewould expect to take the readinghabit for granted. Thus it is estimated that in France 53 percent, in Netherlands 40 per centand in Hungary 39 per cent ofthe adults do not read books.But in Bangladesh where literacyis low barelya tenth of the literate people are non-readers, since those whoare literate are highly motivated. Continue reading “Reading habits in children”

Memories of a great scholar

By Zuhair Siddiqi, Viewpoint, September, 1977

geust-contDr. Wahid Mirza died in Lahore on September 5.

MOHAMMAD WAHID MIRZA was already in his late seventies, and slowly wearing away, when the country observed the 700th death anniversary of his beau ideal, Amir Khusrau, earlier this year. For nearly forty years, Dr. Mirza had been a distinguished figure in the world of Oriental learning. But outside the limited circle of Orientalists, he was not much known — thanks largely to his own retiring disposition and his inherent dislike of self-projection. During the last year of his life, however, his valuable work on Amir Khusrau brought him much wider recognition among the lay intelligentsia. In their search for authentic material on the fascinating character and amazing achievements of that great savant, writers and journalists inevitably had to turn to Dr.Wahid Mirza’s classic contribution, and many of them acknowledged him as one of the greatest living authorities on the subject. The National Book Foundation published a new edition of his Life and Works of Amir Khusrau, which has held the field as a practically indispensable work of reference ever since it was first published in 1935. And at the request of the Foundation,he produced within a few days, in spite of his old age and failing health, an English translation of Khusrau’s Khazain-ul-Futuh — a short history of the reign of Alauddin Khilji. As wider recognition, and fresh bouquets of tribute came to Dr. Mirza during the last year of his life one was reminded of the touching lines of Robert Blair : Continue reading “Memories of a great scholar”

Women’s view of politics: how free—or crucial—is their vote?

By Zubeida Mustafa

DURING the last few years women in Pakistan have emerged as one of the major foci of party campaigns. Although they comprise nearly half the population and have been enfranchised since the inception of Pakistan itself, women have never found themselves as much the target of election campaigns as they find themselves today.

Women’s Wings of political parties have been organised and “women only” public meetings are being held.This sudden upsurge of interest in mobilising support of the female population can be attributed to the growth of political consciousness among the women living in the urban areas. The major events which appear to have contributed to the rise of social and political awareness, although not necessarily interest and involvement  among the women are the International Women’s Year in 1975 and a number of moves by the Government of Pakistan which were directed towards improving the social and economic status of women as a class. The publicity the IWY and the other measures received, more than their actual achievements, could be considered responsible for infusing an awareness in women of their social and political environment.In order to assess the level of political consciousness in women from all walks of life. DAWN conducted a survey amongst a across-section of women in Karachi. Continue reading “Women’s view of politics: how free—or crucial—is their vote?”

Examination reforms – womeneducationists take the plunge

By Zubeida Mustafa

A QUIET revolution in the examination system has already takenplace In one of the leading girls schools of Karachi.With teaching experience of over acentury behind them, aband of devoted women educationists with amissionary zeal have taken the plunge and introduced changes inthe mode of examination which from our standards can be described as really radical.

Talking to the principal of this school, one of the oldest in Karachi which has over 2,000students an Its rolls, I realized what a challenge it must have been to plan, organise and implement the new exam system which is now in its fourth year running. Continue reading “Examination reforms – womeneducationists take the plunge”